Democratization : the state of the art
The third important institution was the popular courts, or dikasteria. Every day, more than jurors were chosen by lot from a pool of male citizens older than There were no police in Athens, so it was the demos themselves who brought court cases, argued for the prosecution and the defense and delivered verdicts and sentences by majority rule.
There were also no rules about what kinds of cases could be prosecuted or what could and could not be said at trial, and so Athenian citizens frequently used the dikasteria to punish or embarrass their enemies. Jurors were paid a wage for their work, so that the job could be accessible to everyone and not just the wealthy but, since the wage was less than what the average worker earned in a day, the typical juror was an elderly retiree. Since Athenians did not pay taxes, the money for these payments came from customs duties, contributions from allies and taxes levied on the metoikoi.
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Modern representative democracies, in contrast to direct democracies, have citizens who vote for representatives who create and enact laws on their behalf. Canada, The United States and South Africa are all examples of modern-day representative democracies. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. In around B. Most of all, Pericles paid artisans to build temples An ambiguous, controversial concept, Jacksonian Democracy in the strictest sense refers simply to the ascendancy of Andrew Jackson and the Democratic party after How will it end? Who was the first man? Where do souls go after death? The term Ancient, or Archaic, Greece refers to the years B. Archaic Greece saw advances in art, poetry and technology, but is known as the age in which the polis, or city-state, was How exactly ancient Greek urbanites divvied up their cities has long been a subject of debate among experts, according to Gabriel Zuchtriegel, a University of Bonn archaeologists who coordinates digs at Selinunte.
Beginning in the eighth century B. Among the many legacies The amazing works of art and architecture known as the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World serve as a testament to the ingenuity, imagination and sheer hard work of which human beings are capable.
They are also, however, reminders of the human capacity for disagreement, Love to grill? In fact, the Greeks beat us all to it by more than 3, years. Recently, archeologist Julie Hruby of Dartmouth College presented her research findings about how exactly the ancient Greeks used their grills at the Archeological Institute In the spring of , a group of Greek sponge divers were returning from North Africa when they were blown off course during a storm and forced to take shelter near the small island of Antikythera, located between Crete and Kythera in the Aegean Sea.
While looking for clams for This Day In History. Who Could Vote in Ancient Greece? The Ekklesia Athenian democracy was a direct democracy made up of three important institutions. The Dikasteria The third important institution was the popular courts, or dikasteria. Listing them chronologically, they account for them by way of: smart city rankings, future Internet developments and through a Triple Helix model of smart cities.
They all claim to capture something significant about the governance challenges and offer insightful accounts of smart cities. For Giffinger et al.
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In this examination of smart cities, standard city ranking procedures are recast by prefixing terms like: economy, people, governance, mobility, environment and living with the word smart and attaching a set of indicators to account for their factor performances. These factor performances include hard and soft attributes, such as: innovative spirit, entrepreneurialism, economic image and trademarks, creativity, cosmopolitism and open-mindedness. Hard and soft attributes Giffinger et al. As those advocating future Internet accounts note, while still performance-based, this definition is particularly valuable for the simple reason that its holistic nature nicely balances the different social, cultural and economic components of smart city developments, without pre-judging either the weight or significance of any specific component.
Perhaps more significantly, it also serves to emphasise the role ICT-related developments play in sustaining economic recovery, underpinning social welfare and supporting cultural health and well-being by highlighting the Internet as an enabler of participatory government. This ambiguity is particularly significant for the smart cities ranking system as many of the cities which perform well do not either market themselves as smart, or have the corporate strategies to support any such claim.
This is because they understand such developments to be the product of innovations within existing system s that are intelligible in the sense which they are purposefully designed to achieve such a status, both by way of and through a pre-conceived set of actions standing to reason.
Based on an analysis of the current landscape of smart city pilot programmes, Future Internet experimentally-driven research and projects in the domain of Living Labs, common resources regarding research and innovation, can be identified that can be shared in open innovation environments.
Smart cities: the state-of-the-art and governance challenge | SpringerLink
The development of broadband infrastructure combining cable, optical fibre and wireless networks, offering high connectivity and bandwidth to citizens and organisations located in the city;. The enrichment of the physical space and infrastructures of cities with embedded systems, smart devices, sensors and actuators, offering real-time data management, alerts and information processing.
As Schaffers et al. This is because for Schaffers et al. The second task they identify is that of initiating large-scale innovation processes for the creation of applications able to run with and improve every sector of activity, city cluster and infrastructure. Here all city activities and utilities are characterised as innovation ecosystems where citizens and organisations participate in the development, supply and consumption of resources. As they point out, in creating this rich environment for initiating large-scale innovation, two different layers of collaboration come into play.
The first layer relates to collaboration within the innovation process, which is understood as ongoing interaction between research, technology and application development. The second layer concerns collaboration at the territorial level, driven by urban and regional development policies that aim to strengthen innovation. That layer of territorial collaboration which Komninos et al. Smart city value creation and innovation system. Source: Schaffers et al. The basis for this account is set out by Leydesdorff and Deakin in their paper on the Triple Helix of smart cities.
This brings to light how the Triple Helix model of smart cities provides the opportunity to study the knowledge base of communities in terms of civil society's support for the cultural and environmental development of their innovation systems also, see Deakin and Leydesdorff, In this schema, cities are considered to be densities in networks among at least three relevant dynamics: that is, in the intellectual capital of universities, industry of wealth creation and participatory governance of the democratic system which forms the rule of law.
The effects of these interactions are in turn understood to generate spaces where the informational basis of communication systems are exploited to bootstrap the notion of smart cities and exploit the opportunities future Internet developments offer to not only generate intellectual capital but also create wealth. That is to say, generate intellectual capital and create wealth as much from the cultural attributes and environmental capacities of knowledge production, as the economic transactions which in turn relate such ICT-related developments to their emerging regional innovation systems.
This captures what perhaps best distinguishes future Internet accounts of smart cities from Triple Helix models of their development. In the sense that: while future Internet accounts are content to account for the economic attributes and capacities of ICT-related developments, advocates of the Triple Helix model seek to involve the cultural attributes and environmental capacities in any explanation of smart city development.
This is not to suggest advocates of the Triple Helix currently offer a particularly insightful account of what cultural and environmental attributes contribute to the governance of such ICT-related developments. For while the Triple Helix is the only model which is explicit about the incorporation of governance-related issues into any such system of knowledge production, accounts of the schema offered by Etzkowitz , tend to restrict such accounts to the rule of law and standards this lays down for the regulation of intellectual property rights. Connected city smart logistic and sustainable mobility.
Entrepreneurial city economic vitality. Liveable city ecological sustainability.
Pioneer city social capital and participatory governance. It is Cruickshank and Deakin et al. This is achieved by developing an operational model of smart cities, whose Triple Helix is based on the social capital of the pioneer city, networking of the intelligence this generates, wealth it creates and in turn cultivates as an environment for participatory governance. The Triple Helix of smart cities. Source: adapted from Deakin a , b. A study of the intellectual capital published as academic papers by scientific and technical communities in Montreal, Edinburgh and Glasgow reveals there to be no direct relationship between either the fundamental or strategic research of these pioneer cities and those which do not claim to be smart Leydesdorff and Deakin, An analysis of patents registered by universities and industry in 13 further cities in the North Sea region of Europe also found there to be no direct relationship between those claiming to be smart and others which choose not to define themselves in such terms see Lombardi et al.
Together, such findings suggest that in their current state, cities which claim to be smart fail the primary and secondary tests traditionally applied to measure the intensity of knowledge production: namely, underlying scientific and technical publications and supporting patent registrations.
The absence of such measures, in turn, tending to suggest any explanation for the development of smart cities is not to be found in either fundamental or strategic accounts of their innovation systems but elsewhere. That agenda, which up till now, has been of little interest to either university or industry because the prevailing academic wisdom has considered the cultural and environmental value of this third mission into networks, attributes and capacities to be a venture neither fundamental enough, nor sufficiently strategic to warrant particular attention Deakin, a , b.
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They open up the opportunity for communities academic-led, business-orientated and citizen-centred alike to learn about how their participation in the governance of scientific and technical innovations in the telecommunications sector can leverage a process of wealth creation mutually advantageous to both university and industry Deakin and Al Waer, ; Deakin, a , b ;. This is how the Triple Helix represented in this model of smart cities neither over-relies on the reflexivity of knowledge production under the political economy of the nation-state statesman and corporatist idioms , nor on the intuition of cultural creativity within the ongoing internationalisation of neo-liberal agendas laissez faire , but instead localises the contemporary breakdown of the former and territorial expansion of the latter in the wealth created from the ICT-related developments reported on.
In this instance, as a set of business-to-citizen applications, whose multi-channel access and user-profiles have the attributes and capacities that communities need to participate in the governance of these developments and for cities to be smart in opening up the spaces which are required for the intellectual capital embedded in this process of wealth creation to act as an exercise in direct democracy Deakin, a , b. The communication system that embeds the ICT-related developments needed for such forms of social capital to underpin the networks upon which their intelligence stands Deakin, a , b ;.
The attributes and capacities which communities in turn require to open up the spaces that make it possible for their participation in the third mission agenda of this government-led venture to create wealth Deakin, a ;.
The co-design of business-to-citizen applications, multi-channel access and user profiles that provide communities with the intelligence which is needed for them to participate in the governance of these ICT-related developments alongside university and industry and open up the spaces required to create wealth from such exercises in direct democracy Deakin, b. These positive associations clearly define a policy agenda for smart cities, although clarity does not necessarily imply ease of implementation.
Caragliu et al. While it is accepted by the authors of this [paper] that knowledge is created by the interplay and relations of the three traditional helices interacting within regional innovation systems, with the Advanced Triple Helix model we propose, its accumulation is enhanced by way of interaction with urban environments and through their contour conditions.
Contours of the advanced Triple Helix. Source: Kourtit et al. Translating the traditional Triple Helix schema into a set of metrics able to approximate the smartness of cities;. Carrying out a principal component analysis PCA representing the relationship between the advanced Triple Helix and smartness of cities as a performance measurement. With respect to the traditional Triple Helix, the smart cities of this regional innovation system are above the EU average.